Amphetamine is the most commonly used drastic stimulants. This drug is a stimulant of the central nervous system. Amphetamine does not produce energy as the food. On the contrary, it uses the resources of the body and launches the energy that is already in the body. Amphetamines are synthetic analogs of the cocaine stimulant. Dependence on amphetamine is highly widespread. It is associated with the fact that it is extremely popular among young people. The purpose of the paper is to study history, effects, positive and negative aspects of the drug, and its impact on modern society.
Amphetamine is white or cream-colored fine-crystalline powder soluble in water. Basically, the drug has no odor. Sometimes, acidic odor is present. The drug use occurs by inhaling through the nose, mouth, smoking, or injection. For the first time, ephedrine as a stimulant was described by the Chinese people about 5000 years ago. It was discovered from natural raw materials. Amphetamine is an analogue of ephedrine. It was first synthesized from ephedrine in 1887 and used as an appetite suppressant drug. In the book Speed-speed-speedfreak, it is stated that “when basic amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazer Edeleanu, working in the University of Berlin, no one was thinking about madness, death, or any combination of the two”. After the ban of cocaine in Europe, psychiatrists began to use amphetamine and its derivatives in their practices for the treatment of lethargy, excessive sleepiness, and feeling of tiredness. Doctors also treated children from poor concentration with the help of amphetamine. At that time, doctors prescribed this drug to treat attention disorders, narcolepsy, hyperactivity, and other diseases. In such a way, people used this drug only in medical purposes and perceived it as a good means capable to heal from certain diseases. However, the scientists soon noticed that people started abusing amphetamine. People started using amphetamine for stimulation and pleasure. In 1970, the first notes about the misuse of amphetamine appeared in the United States. Nowadays, amphetamine is banned in many countries around the world.
Amphetamine is extremely popular in the youth club environment. The drug gives strength and energy for the whole night in the club. After intake, amphetamine rapidly spread in all human organs since it is quickly and completely absorbed in the stomach and intestines. When administered intravenously, the brain gets amphetamine within several seconds. The drug is mainly metabolized in the liver. It falls into the active derivatives of ephedrine and other inactive substances. Blood is capable to store amphetamine from 8 to 12 hours. Repeated administration of amphetamine the next day is able to maintain a constant concentration in the blood and the extension of the narcotic effect. Amphetamine is excreted by the kidneys and can, therefore, be easily detected in taking of urine for analysis.
The influence of amphetamine on the central nervous system is manifested by the increase efficiency, activity, and reduced fatigue. A person experiences good mood, increased attention, and the loss of appetite. In overdose, convulsions and tremors are possible. In the long term of use, amphetamine causes paranoia and disorientation. Moreover, psychosis often develops. The impact of amphetamine on the cardiovascular system is manifested by heart palpitations and pain.
Amphetamine is able to disperse the human nervous system. It stimulates virtually all parts of the brain. This stimulation makes the human body to spend all energy and mental resources. Such effects occur because amphetamine promotes the release of norepinephrine and dopamine. In the book Psychopharmacology for Mental Health Professionals, it is affirmed that “amphetamines exert almost all their effects by causing the release of norepinephrine and dopamine from the synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft”. Thus, this mechanism causes the state that people experience using amphetamine.
There are no beneficial effects of amphetamine. Earlier, the drug was given to soldiers during wars. All warring countries in World War II used psychoactive features of amphetamine to give courage, vigor, and endurance to the soldiers. Thus, it can be said that this drug is necessary for imparting courage. However, these days, it is not a justification for the intake of amphetamine. In contrary to positive features, there are a great number of negative features of amphetamine. Delusional psychosis is a natural result of continuous use of not only of amphetamines but also all other psychostimulants without exception. Madness and spoiled norms of morality and ethics for their regular users is a common daily routine. Pills and injections of amphetamines as well as cocaine cause addiction and dependence. Besides, this state occurs much faster – after 1-2 doses. A person taking amphetamine experiences a feeling of excitement and receives the ability to work for a long time. However, there is acute apathy and depression after vigor and vitality. Intoxication of the drug passes but it still remains in blood and acts as a normal poison. Therefore, a person again wants to return to the state of the first intake of amphetamine. A man wants to feel strength and joy. A person again takes the drug, though, it is impossible to reach the former state of bliss. He/she takes pills or injections of amphetamine, although a previous dose of the drug is still in the blood. As a result, there is the state of excitement at first and then, a person experiences psychosis or epileptic seizure. The end result of the intake of amphetamine is the death of the person. It is the main danger of this drug.
Amphetamine has an extremely negative impact on society. Its impact on the human begins from the first intake of the drug. Many young people want to feel new emotions and amphetamine is the most widespread drug for them. In the book Interventions for Amphetamine Misuse, it is noted that “amphetamine-type substances are the second most commonly used drugs in the world”. It absorbs a person’s attention and fixes him/her on the past. The relationship of a person with family, friends, and people around deteriorate. A man stops to achieve success at school, college, or work. The interests are gradually limited to drugs and those connected with them.
According to my opinion, amphetamine should be banned in all countries. Its intake should be also forbidden in medical purposes as when doctors prescribe amphetamine for the treatment of certain diseases, there is a chance of the occurrence of dependency. The government of each state should introduce stringent measures to combat the spread and use of amphetamine as this drug is highly dangerous for people.
The modern world is full of various non-controlled drugs. These days, amphetamine is one of the most widespread drugs. It is especially true for younger people as this drug is rather cheap and it has a great impact on the nervous system of the person. Amphetamine is a strong central nervous system stimulant. The stimulation effect is manifested in high blood pressure, decrease of fatigue and appetite, and good mood. The cause of these effects is in the release of hormones norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system. After its intake, a person experiences a state of joy, bravery, and euphoria. However, at the end, there is psychosis and even death.