Climate change is a natural process that may also be influenced by various human activities. Variations in weather aspects over a long period of time in a specified geographical region lead to changes in climate, which are usually unpredictable inasmuch as efforts by professionals in the meteorological field are not undermined. There is, therefore, a need to study measures human can apply to avoid the changes in climate, considering its negative effects in regard to environmental sustainability. Either directly or indirectly, all countries in the world experience the effects that come with climate change. Therefore, this poses it as a global challenge that requires pulling of all resources globally to prevent the possible consequences. This paper analyzes the effects of climate change and identifies possible climate actions to curb the adverse effects towards achieving global sustainability development goals.
Change in climate involves variations in regional and global climate patterns. Several conditions cause the differences in the aspects determining the climate and the weather patterns over a long period. Volcanic eruptions, variations in solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, biotic processes, plate tectonics, as well as global warming, which involves human activities, are the primary causes of climate change. Study of climate and changes that influence it with predictions of the same in future is critical for any country and the world as a whole. Use of theoretical models and previous climate records enables scientists to understand and predict the patterns, thus, recommending measures on mitigation or prevention of the same if possible.
Climate action is the central aspect of the global sustainability development goals. Due to the fact that global warming, which is among the major causes of climate change, is as a result of human activities, there is a possibility to control it or interfere with it to achieve positive climate change that would generally contribute a significant value to the world community. According to research analysts, each and every country on the globe experiences the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions, for instance, have risen by 50%, adding to the effects of global warming which with time can cause irreversible consequences. Therefore, there is a need for immediate actions to combat climate change and its drastic effects.
Water bodies, terrain, altitudes, and latitudes have a significant effect on climate, considering they are of different levels and measurements in various geographic areas. Koppen Climate Classification, for example, is the first standard of rating used in climate. It was established in the 1940's in an incorporation of evapotranspiration along with precipitation and weather in the study and evaluation of diversity on the biological basis, as well as the effects of the same on climate change. Different geographical areas experience different climates at different times of the year. Extensive research and evaluation focusing on weather aspects of a specific region is, therefore, critical to be able to prevent impending effects.
Tsunamis, flooding, tropical cyclones, and earthquakes are some of the extreme consequences of climate change in the world today. Losses regarding infrastructure and, thus, finances are not only gaps that the disasters leave in the community, but also a loss of precious human and animal lives that cannot be brought back, demonstrating the gravity of the issue under investigation. Assessment of several incidences and intensity of effect around countries in the world calls for the need of proper investment of time, money, and necessary skills with regards to disaster and risk management. The United States of America, for instance, has a policy of investing $6 billion dollars annually towards disaster management and global target of raising $100 billion annually in the next five years to be channeled to developing countries in the course of preventing climate related disasters. Nevertheless, there is still the importance of choosing right policies and actions towards reaching mitigating effects of climate change itself, other than waiting to deal with the consequences of their occurrence. The Pacific island nation of Kiribati, for instance, is currently vulnerable to climate change. Recent pictures on the exact location of this natural resource cause worries about the existence, as the water levels rise and land is getting drier day by day as a practical effect of global warming.
The environment suffers a lot from earthquakes, tsunamis, and cyclones that sweep away the primary composition of the environment soil. Water that flows through the land with a height estimated to be miles high leaves the land without life; all vegetation, animals, and human beings are left without shelter. According to research on previous effects of tsunamis while analyzing the damage, not only property and infrastructure have been lost but also human lives. It is a major setback for a country and world economy at large after such a tragedy, which is as a result of climate change, Governments have no option but to focus on rebuilding the infrastructure and cater for the affected families with regards to food and shelter. There is, therefore, a need for immediate climate action to avoid future losses globally.
One of the primary actions towards curbing effects of climate change in the world is to focus on the landlocked countries and states on the islands. The urgent collective action is necessary to at least limit increase of temperature with regards to global warming by two degrees Celsius. This can be significant in strengthening the resilience and adaptivity of these vulnerable states in particular geographical regions. Association and collaboration of the developed first world countries with developing countries, as well as weak states in islands and landlocked areas can be essential to collectively pull resources including technology to mitigate the temperatures based on industrial levels.
There are three primary measures that the United States of America's administration has set forward as a climate action towards combating the adverse effects of climate change, mainly global warming. Managing carbon emissions out of the production plants as well as motor vehicles and any other fuel running machines all over the country is a first significant measure to prevent the addition of harmful elements into the air and environment in general. When the air gets mixed with Carbon gas, considering the elements in its components, it becomes highly contaminated, unfit for inhalation as well as for use by the plants. Carbon emissions are not only harmful for human, animals, and plants but also the atmospheric pressure, and it has significant influence on building up the global warming levels in the world.
The second critical measure that the country has set in place is proper preparation strategies and approaches to combat effects that come with climate change among other associated disasters as floods and tsunamis. Inasmuch as it is critical to devise and innovate ways to reduce carbon pollution, it is also necessary to focus on the actual effects of change in climate in any given country. Issues regarding flood, for instance, have to do with infrastructure that has been disrupted by previous disasters; there is a need for local governments to collaborate with the federal government regarding finances and policies to move forward and strengthen roads, shorelines, and bridges. It is necessary to have these measures in place to help the affected individuals. Homes, businesses, and the general way of life needs to be improved, especially for citizens living in the aftermath of the disasters. Helping these people to achieve a comfortable standard of life has a direct effect on economic improvement of a nation at large and consequently impact on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
According to Steiner, no country is immune to the effects of climate change, considering that every state is experiencing the same challenges. It is, therefore, imperative to form international collaborations to combat global problems and sufficiently devise approaches needed to jointly address the challenges of climate as an international problem. International collaboration stands as the third measure that United States has set among its primary approaches and strategies of dealing with consequences of climate change, primarily global warming. It is important to work as an international community addressing the same problem, hence, the same goal. Actions by a neighboring country add to global warming elements and extend its effects to neighboring countries, calling for a collective effort against the menace.
Deploying clean energy is a critical first measure towards reducing carbon that has the direct effect on climate change. In many developed countries including the United States, power plants are the largest source of carbon gas that leads to pollution of the environment. According to research, there are no government policies or regulations regarding the amount of carbon emissions that power plants are allowed to release into the air. The US federal government in response to this has set several public awareness plans and campaigns to encourage management various power plants to innovate and invest in the renewable sources of energy. Use of renewable sources of energy out of natural resources, such as wind, geothermal, and solar ones, is on the rise in the course of reducing over-reliance on fossil fuels. In this light, the Obama administration is working to achieve a 17% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2020.
Using of clean energy, while at the same time improving leadership policies and equipping individuals in these positions with necessary skills, is a worthwhile course in the fight against global warming. Proper strategies and solutions are imperative for running local and state governments not only in the current administration, but also to the future generations in order to maintain a sustainable environment. The approach is geared entirely to reduce power plant pollution, improve public health and provide affordable alternative energy for the community, hence, ultimately realizing economic growth of the nation.
Regarding the transport sector, it is necessary to develop new technologies that are fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. According to analysts, heavy-duty vehicles are the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions. The heavy buses, trucks, and vans are the major features in this policy, where standards from 2014 models have been set, expecting to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions significantly by approximately two hundred and seventy million metric tons. This equally works to save oil consumption by about 530 barrels. According to Lineman, campaigns and strategies to cut energy waste in homes and factories through the reduction of unit bills for businesses are on course in our modern society. Consequently, an increase in the number of key players in the energy saving industry is for the collective benefit of all the nations of the world, as new measures will be available for families, businesses, and production factories to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Inasmuch as climate change is a natural occurrence, there are also human activities that contribute to factors such as global warming and lead to changes in aspects of weather over an extended period.
In conclusion, earthquakes, tsunamis, and cyclones are some of the extreme effects of climate changes, arising from unfriendly environmental practices among other rampant human activities evident in the modern society. Global communities working with professionals in this field, for instance, the United Nations Environment program, can formulate policies involving all world countries, because it is a global challenge; this is necessary to combat the adverse effects of the changes. Consequently, advocating for practices that conserve the environment and fostering for increased use of renewable energies are strategies that have been put in place towards climate action plan to mitigate the impact of climate change and global warming across the globe.