History of Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the dissemination of video and/or audio signals to a number of recipients who can be either viewers or listeners that belong to a huge group. It is the concurrent transmission of the similar messages to numerous receivers. Defining precisely when broadcasting was first initiated is tough. Long ago radio communications only displayed the dots and dashes of wireless telegraphy. However, broadcasting in its accustomed sense, sending indicators to update and entertain the general public, commenced in the early twentieth century. Nations in which prominent developments were made in the start of the twentieth century include the United States, Germany, Sri Lanka and Britain. In the United States the initial signals of substantial influence that supported voice and music was achieved in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden at Christmas Eve when he broadcasted to ships at marine from Massachusetts.
Broadcasting has evolved over time and has progressively advanced in a sequential pattern from Magic, craze and land grab phases through its mainstream media channels that include Television, radio, internet, newspapers, and magazines among others. These developmental stages in the mainstream media demonstrates the foundation of the new technologies and the progressive innovations that involve the fine tuning to expand the medium with increasingly hype that pose a fad coupled with idealistic prospects from the public. Consequently, there is a deliberate move by big corporations that merge and realign themselves to control, regulate, command and influence the activities and major decisions that involve the communication industry. This is the characteristic of historical sequence of broadcasting patterns as exhibited in the magic, craze and land grab stages. We will analyze these sequential patterns for radio and Television broadcasting in perspective.
STAGE 1 (Magic Phase)
Radio broadcasting is a major pioneer of conventional broadcasting .The initial radio broadcast comprised of wireless telecommunication which was established from an impermanent station developed by Guglielmo in 1895. This sequential development in Radio broadcasting was progressively pioneered by numerous personalities that included Alessandro Volta, Andre-Marie Ampere, Georg Ohm, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz. Consequently, the transmission of music and interactive dialogue through radio began to be implemented around 1905-1906 and commercially from 1920 to 1923. VHF stations started 30 to 35 years later.
STAGE 2 (Craze Phase)
In earlier years, radio stations transmitted on the long, medium and short wave bands, and advanced on to use VHF (Very High Frequency) and UHF (Ultra High Frequency). Conversely, other countries like Hungary, France, United Kingdom and Hungary among other nations had an already elaborate structure from 1890 whereby music, news, religious broadcasts, live theatre, music hall and fiction readings were accessible in reserved households among other places through the conservative telephone line, with users being provided with a number of distinctive, customized headsets. This system had varied names Electrophone in Britain which was accessible from 1895 to 1926; In Hungary it was referred to Telefon Hirmondo and was accessed from 1893 to 1920s and in France, Theatrophone and was used from 1890 to 1932.
In the year 1912 the U.S. government required radio operators to acquire licenses for signal operations. Herrold obtained licenses for 6XF and 6XE which are mobile receivers whose operations were interrupted in 1914 by the First World War. However, several organizations like Westinghouse Electric Corporation were permitted to continue working on radio throughout the war. Immediately after the end World War 1, Herrold and other radio developers across the nation continued broadcasts. The first stations received new call signs. Conrad's 8XK converted into KDKA in 1920. Herrold obtained a license for KQW in 1921 and advanced to become KCBS, which is affiliated to CBS station in San Francisco.
By the year 1955, nearly every household in Western Europe, Japan and North America and Western Europe had a radio. A histrionic revolution began in the 1960s with the emergence of small economical handy transistor radio that prominently enlarged ownership and application. At this time, radio access became essentially widespread across the globe.
Through the last nine decades or thereabout radio broadcasting has developed numerous enhancements, modifications and challenges in equal measure that include: global transmissions, predominantly restricted to the short wave band, enhanced technology made radios become cheaper, and in practically every household, portable sets and cars; the inception of FM transmissions and its influence on AM stations; the encounter of television, which intended that radio presenters later focused on music of changing varieties, newsflash, sport and dialogue programs; the discovery of the transistor that meant enhanced portability and even cheaper sets; digital radio and eventual internet radio.
STAGE 3 (Land Grab Phase)
The progressive development in radio broadcasting led to the mushrooming of big companies that have continuous remained the pace setters in the radio stations. Government controls through licensing and other regulatory controls have created big corporations in Radio industry that might transmit several programs concurrently, through numerous channels and frequencies. For instance, the British Broadcasting Corporation transmits BBC One and BBC Two.
STAGE 1 (Magic Phase)
Electronic television was initially established in San Francisco on Sept. 7, 1927. The structure was developed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old innovator who had survived in a household without power until he was 14. Farnsworth when in high school had initiated to perceive of a structure that could capture moving pictures in a coded form onto radio frequencies and then transmuted back into a display picture .Almost the same time, Boris Rosing in Russia had steered some rudimentary trials in disseminating pictures 16 years prior Farnsworth's initial success. Similarly, a powered television structure, which flicks through pictures using a revolving disk with holes organized in a spiral design, had been established by Charles Francis Jenkins in the U.S and John Logie Baird in England previously in the 1920s. Nevertheless, Farnsworth's discovery is the direct pioneer of contemporary television.
RCA, the corporation that conquered the radio business in the U.S with its dual NBC systems, invested $50 million in the growth of electronic television. In 1939, RCA displayed the inaugural of the New York International exhibition, comprising a speech by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, being the first president to be seen on TV. In the same year, RCA paid for a permit to use Farnsworth's television copyrights. RCA started marketing TV sets and the company also started broadcasting steady programs. By 1941 the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) which is the RCA's major rival in radio, was transmitting two fifteen session bulletins a day to a small viewers on its New York TV station.
The Second World War slackened the progress of television, as corporations like RCA spun their focus to military production. Television's advancement was further decelerated by a tussle over frequency distributions with the new FM radio and a struggle over government control. In 1941, the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) ruled that the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) was supposed to sell one of its two radio networks was maintained by the Supreme Court in 1943. The subsequent system became the innovative American Broadcasting Company (ABC), which entered TV early in the ensuing decade. But complete commercial TV transmitting did not initiate in the U.S until 1947.
STAGE 2 (Craze Phase)
In the mid-1950s, between 1953 and 1955 television encoding started to take particular phases different from radio designs. NBC television president Sylvester Weaver formulated the "spectacular," a prominent model of which was Peter Pan (1955), featuring Mary Martin, which fascinated 60 million audiences. Weaver also advanced the magazine- design programs Today, which premiered in 1952 with Dave Garroway as the facilitator till 1961 and The Tonight Show, which initiated in 1953 presented by Steve Allen till 1957. Consequently, the third network, ABC, spun its initial profit with youthful inclined programs like Disneyland, which first featured in 1954 and The Mickey Mouse Club. This represented a lot of craze that was exhibited through huge audiences to different television shows. Furthering this craze, in 1964 color transmission started on mainstream television. The FCC firstly sanctioned a CBS color structure, then switched in RCA's approval.
STAGE 3 (Land Grab Phase)
Through television broadcasting during the 1960s and 1970s a nation progressively captivated with television was restricted to viewing virtually exclusively what featured on the three main stations that included American Broadcasting Corporation, National Broadcasting Company and Columbia Broadcasting System. These stations acquired time to transmit their programs from approximately 200 associates in major metropolises of the United States. Programming on these three stations was intended to seize mass viewers. The three main stations have continuously been in a persistent competition for ratings and publicity cash.