Scrutiny on the Connection between Humanness and Government
The Chinese philosophy is one of the most ancient approaches towards world cognition. Therefore, it is not surprising that it includes a lot of scrutiny regarding the morals and virtues that are expected to be maintained by every human. In addition, the Chinese philosophers, starting with Confucius, devote much attention towards surveying the merits of collectivism and interpersonal relations. In this regard, humanness as a virtue, serves to be the basement of an efficient state structure, which is necessary for successful functioning of every individual within a country. This paper is aimed to identify the core ideas on the humanness and government and discuss the ways in which these two notions are linked according to Chinese philosophers.
To begin with, it is appropriate to stress that humanness manifests itself through the need for affiliation. Consider an example, Confucius educates to be filial; this thinker states that “just being filial and friendly toward one’s brothers has its effect on government”. This insight implies that the sense of belonging is a critical regulator of social interactions. For instance, thanks to the urge for affiliation, people tend to master their humanness. As a result, humanness that is accumulated in a collectivistic society becomes the basis for strong hierarchy.
Given this interpretation of the humanness and its role, it becomes clear that this virtue encourages individuals to be subordinate their activities to serving the needs of their community. Confucius asks “why should one have to take part in government?”. In other words, the intentions of common people should not be too ambitious. Instead, they must comprehend that everyone plays a special role in the Universe and, by this, contributes to the advancement of humanness that underlies the structure of government.
What is more, humanness is perceived as a virtue that generates all the good matters in the world and, therefore, developing this quality needs to be the main goal and the ultimate purpose. The rationale that supports this supposition is the following: “it is humaneness that brings beauty to one’s surroundings. Should one not make the choice to abide in humanness, how could one become known?”. The revealed scrutiny possesses two premises. Firstly, it states that humanness is the phenomenon that is worth existing for its own sake because it is the virtue that generates the beautiful matters and moral deeds. Secondly, considering the aforementioned essential role of humanness, it is obvious that it should be present in leadership.
Specifically, to have the right to lead, the chiefs should gain a positive reputation. In other words, the followers must be sure that they chose the right, virtuous person as a header because, in a case of mistake, none-virtuous individual can not lead people towards the moral and benevolent future. Therefore, to be recognized as such, the person who intends to become a leader should be capable of adhering to the principles of humanness. Otherwise, he will not be noticed and, respectfully, chosen as a header. This scrutiny emphasizes an important idea that governance should be performed in the ethical frames of humanness.
Moreover, according to the Chinese philosophy regarding humanness and governing, this personal characteristic is considered to be vital for other qualities of a leader and, in general, of a virtuous person. Consider an example, “one who is not humane is able neither to abide for long in hardship nor to abide for long in joy”. This explanation suggests that humanness is the source of resilience that is essential for all people, but is especially important for leaders to have, because their activities directly affect the life and well-being of their subordinates. That is why, to be capable of standing stressful situations and anticipating the issues that stem from erroneous or deficient interpersonal relations, leaders, as well as common people, should adhere to humanness.
In a case when a person reaches this goal, he/she achieves the inner and indefinite source of happiness. For example, the thinker claims that “the humane find peace in humanness; the knowing derive profit from humanness”. This statement means that knowledge is a virtue that is impossible without humanness because practical insights about what is right and what is wrong in terms of communication are the tools of accomplishing the greater good. Besides, the fruitful interpersonal relations, which are possible only thanks to the humanness of participants, facilitate the process of learning other insights that are none-related to interpersonal relations. In this way, people acquire wisdom, which stems from humanness and is essential for effective governance.
Meanwhile, the Chinese philosophy discusses the merits of humanness and government in frames of domestic affairs of a particular state, the same insights are relevant in terms of international relations. Consider the rationale, the development of productive relations with other states is impossible without humanness. This virtue includes positivism, benevolent and respectful attitude towards other involved parties, wisdom in choosing correct approaches in the process of decision-making and problem-solving. Therefore, one can rightfully deduce that international negotiations are impossible without humanness.
Simultaneously, the Chinese teachings educate that, at an individual level, humanness should be obtained and practiced during daily activities of every person. In this regard, humanness is presented as the inner moral compass that is responsible for avoiding the wrongdoings. Given this assumption, it is natural to conclude that humanness requires strong inner locus of control. In particular, when the philosopher is asked “does the practice of humanness come from myself or from others?”, he scrutinizes “is humanness far away? If I want to be human, then humanness is here”. This answer implies that the principles and measures of humanness are set as moral norms in every society in accordance with its needs, preserved by legal and ethical regulations, and passed through traditions from one generation to another. Hence, despite being fostered within community, the leading force of humanness should be the inner motives and triggers, not the external ones, such as the views of other people.
Being presented as a result of inner control and stimuli, one’s humanness is reduced to the minor role of every human that, nevertheless, is a considerable contribution, which is vital for the general success of the nation. This idea suggests not only social hierarchy, but also the gradation in terms of social roles and labor division. Specifically, Confucius educates “let the ruler be a ruler; the minister, a minister, the father, a father, the son, a son”. In other word, the greatest virtue that is stipulated by one’s humanness is to be able to maintain the assigned functions in accordance with his/her place in society. Furthermore, the greatest wisdom is to be capable of properly define these roles and be willing to embrace them with obedience and gratitude. This vision is supposed to set the proper social order that will construct effective system of governance. As a result, the strong government that possesses such strengths as “sufficient food, sufficient military force, the confidence of the people” will be developed.
Summing up the above-mentioned it is appropriate to accentuate that, according to the Chinese philosophy, the notions of government and humanness are closely related. In particular, the effective governance is impossible without humanness that is accumulated in a society. Moreover, a functional government can not be understood and expected by the members of collective until they possess a strong vision and adherence towards the principles of humanness. At the same time, efficient governance that is respected by the natives and is famous as a robust state system at the international stage is a vivid manifestation of the large deposits of humanness in this community. Furthermore, one should emphasize that, at an individual level, humanness encourages neglecting personal needs for fostering the collective goals and ambitions. Despite the fact that humanness opposes individualism, it is considered to be a great virtue because it helps people build harmonious interpersonal relations that are also benevolent for the entire state.