30.08.2019 in Ethics

Compare and Contrast of U.S. and Italy Health Care

Healthcare in Italy has received recognition from the world health system due to its population of almost sixty-one million. The Italian health service has managed to demonstrate a significant improvement in the health care system. A lot of interest has been drawn to this particular country’s health structure since it is one of the best in the world and has well-trained doctors with a considerable number of both private and public medical facilities to serve the growing population. Therefore, a case comparison between the health care structure and system of the United States and Italy is a substantial issue.

Health Statistic and Cost Caparison between US and Italy

Both countries, Italy and the United States, have recorded health improvement in among their population for the past years. The quality of service has also increased due to the introduction of modernized technology in the health care system of these countries. However, there still exit contradictions in some areas. For example, in Italy, there is a higher life expectancy among its population as compared to the US. Moreover, life expectancy for men and women in Italy is 79.4 and 84.5 years respectively, which is among the highest in the world. In the US, men and female life expectancy is 74.89 and 80.62 respectively showing a lower life expectancy as compared to Italy. The population growth in the US is high and ranges from 0.93% unlike in Italy were the population growth is 5.3%. This is attributed to the low birth rate in Italy of 1.4 contrary to the high birth rate in the US of 14.14 per a thousand persons of the population. In addition, Italy is experiencing low fertility among women as compared to America at a rate of 1.4% and 2.08% respectively . The total health expenditure in Italy accounts to 9.2% GDP, which is less as compared to the GDP of the United States that stands at 15.3%.

Health Care Financing: Comparison between US and Italy

There are both private and public funded health care facilities in Italy. Concerning public health care, the funds are ensured by the government revenue taxes collected to ensure efficient management and resources. The government of Italy plays a crucial role in the public financing of the health care were it is used to cover the corresponding expenses for all the legal citizens in Italy. The government of the US offers insurance protection for their citizens through Medicare and Medicaid. The US citizens are covered by the private voluntary health insurance and the government insurance policies together with the military health care program. On the other hand, the healthcare system in the US depends widely on the private insurance and financial medical cover for their citizens. The private health insurance in Italy plays a limited role and accounts for one percent of the total health spending in the medical facilities.

In Italy, the national and regional taxes, co-payment for pharmaceutical and outpatient are the leading funding channels of the National Health Service. Unlike in the US, which depends on the private insurance company, the total financial spending of Italy healthcare is low as compared to that of the US. Hence, it accounts for 78.2% and 83.4% respectively. Similarly to the US, Italy depends on out-of-pocket payment to finance their private medical facilities and subsidize public health care. The out-of-pocket payment is obtained from the services, such as laboratory test, pharmaceuticals non-urgent services provided within the hospital.

Health Care Administration: Comparison between US and Italy

In the United States, both the government and other agencies deal with the state health care seriously by ensuring that its management and administration are considered to all the US citizens. The US public health service commission handles the respective management at the national level. The organization provides expertise at various levels in the public health care sector. Whereas the CMMI (Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation) handles testing, delegating services, and payment models in the national health care in the US. Concerning quality service, AHRQ and the CDC is responsible for the research administration to facilitate patient safety and clinical guidance. On the other hand, the health authority in Italy is under the management of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The Local Health Unit handles protecting citizens’ health and promoting public health. They are in charge of the public health hygiene, health education and disease control in Italy. The Local Health Unit in Italy deals with medical practitioners in the national health care. Moreover, they regulate their payment and distribution in various sectors of the health sector.

In Italy, the National Health Council (NHC) provides support to the national health planning, education, and information to the citizens. The National Drug Agency (NDA) has been in charge of the pharmaceutical industry in Italy. Additionally, they manage the provision and distribution of drugs to the health sectors in the country. Both Italy and US government are the overall governing bodies of the healthcare through the Ministry of Health (MoH). They administrate the national tax flow to the various national health institutions in the country and ensure that the population receives quality service through favorable laws and regulations.

Health Care Personnel and Facilities: Comparison between US and Italy

In Italy, there is almost 646 236 medical personnel working in the national health care service within the country. Whereas in the US, about 730 801 physicians are employed in the health sector with over a million nurses. It indicates a higher number of health workers in America as compared to Italy. The population of US is very high, and the demand for medical attention is equally great. It explains their need for more medical expertise to control the growing population. Among the health staff in Italy, 23.7% are physicians as compared to the 30% population of physicians in the US. Moreover, there are more physicians and dentists in the US than in Italy. The population of nurses in the US is extremely high as compared to many countries in the world. On the other hand, Italy has a low number of nurses accounting to 58.3% of the total health care personnel in Italy National Health Care. It is worth noting that a majority of the nurses are women similar to the US, hence, few male in the National Health Service.

The United States population is rapidly growing resulting in an increasing demand for medical facilities in the country. There are over 5794 medical hospitals in the United States were at least 3025 are privately owned. The high population is equitably served by the hospitals that are composed of physicians who dispense quality service. Public or private hospitals provide efficient services to the population. On the other hand, in Italy, the population is not immense as compared to that of the US. However, they have invested in the hospital facility with almost 4280 medical facilities in the region. The health sector in Italy has the medical staff that is in charge of providing medical support to the population.

Access and Inequality Issues: Comparison between US and Italy

The citizens of the US are very diverse as compared to Italy. In the US, more than five races and ethnic communities are in demand for the health care services. In the US, racial discrimination in the healthcare system is more elaborate than in Italy. The most affected people in the US are the Hispanic. They are an ethnic community living in the US, and their population has increased over the years by four percent. Most of the Latinos in the United Stated are uninsured by the government or any agency. Consequently, it is evident that the US government does not provide universal health cover to the entire population. Most Latinos and Hispanic are always affected in the issues of health insurance. Most of them are illegal immigrants making it intricate to cover them. Insurance companies try only to cover the natives and those with better jobs. Most of the Hispanics and Latinos do not have well-paid jobs, hence making them easily isolated. However, in Italy, the National Health Service covers all the citizens and legal foreign residence irrespective of ethnicity or race. Temporary visitors in Italy, such as tourist, are not insured, but they can receive medical service through paying the cost of their treatment.

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